The Morton Borden Course will walk through the Federalist / Anti-Federalist debates as laid out by Morton Borden.  Morton Borden sorted the Federalist / Anti-Federalist Debates by topic and created 85 Anti-Federalist essays that correspond to the 85 Federalist Papers.  If you want to understand WHY our framers established our particular form of government, the Federalist / Anti-Federalist Debates are the place to find answers.

This course is extremely informative, free of charge and brought to you by Restore The Intent and our friends over at The New Guards.  This course can be completed by individuals, but we recommended a group setting, either in person at a local venue or via phone conference, Skype, Hangouts or some similar program.

To begin the course, instruct members to read one document then watch the corresponding video.  On an agreed upon day, meet up in person, on Skype, in Google Hangouts or any other preferred venue and discuss what you learned. 

Enjoy! 

Papers

Articles of Confederation
Proposed Plans for the Constitution
The Virginia Plan for the Constitution
The New Jersey Plan for the Constitution
Hamilton’s Plan for the Constitution
First Draft of the Constitution
General Topics

FED1: General Introduction
AFED5: Scotland And England – A Case In Point.
FED2: Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence
FED3: The Same Subject Continued (Concerning Dangers From Foreign Force and Influence)
FED4: The Same Subject Continued (Concerning Dangers From Foreign Force and Influence)
FED5: The Same Subject Continued (Concerning Dangers From Foreign Force and Influence)
AFED1: General Introduction: A dangerous plan of benefit only to the “Aristocratick Combination”
AFED3: New Constitution Creates A National Government; Will Not Abate Foreign Influence; Dangers Of Civil War And Despotism
AFED4: Foreign Wars, Civil Wars, And Indian Wars – Three Bugbears
AFED2: “We have been told of phantoms”
Conflicts Between the States
AFED9: A Consolidated Government Is A Tyranny
FED6: Concerning Dangers from Dissensions Between the States
FED7: The Same Subject Continued (Concerning Dangers from Dissensions Between the States)
FED8: The Consequences of Hostilities Between the States
FED9: The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection
FED10: The Same Subject Continued (The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection)
AFED6: The Hobgoblins Of Anarchy And Dissensions Among The States
AFED7: Adoption Of The Constitution Will Lead To Civil War
AFED8: “The Power Vested In Congress Of Sending Troops For Suppressing Insurrections Will Always Enable Them To Stifle The First Struggles Of Freedom”
AFED10: On The Preservation Of Parties, Public Liberty Depends
Costs of the New Government
AFED13: The Expense Of The New Government
FED11: The Utility of the Union in Respect to Commercial Relations and a Navy
FED12: The Utility of the Union In Respect to Revenue
FED13: Advantage of the Union in Respect to Economy in Government
AFED12: How Will The New Government Raise Money?
AFED11: Unrestricted Power Over Commerce Should Not Be Given The National Government
State Sovereignty – preservation of the Union
AFED17: Federalist Power Will Ultimately Subvert State Authority
AFED14: Extent Of Territory Under Consolidated Government Too Large To Preserve Liberty Or Protect Property
AFED18-20: What Does History Teach? (Part I)
FED14: Objections to the Proposed Constitution From Extent of Territory Answered
FED15: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union
FED16: The Same Subject Continued (The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union)
FED17: The Same Subject Continued (The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union)
AFED15: Rhode Island Is Right!
FED18: The Same Subject Continued (The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union)
FED19: The Same Subject Continued (The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union)
FED20: The Same Subject Continued (The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union)
AFED16: Europeans Admire And Federalists Decry The Present System
AFED18-20: What Does History Teach? (Part II)
Defects in the Articles of Confederation
AFED21: Why The Articles Failed
FED21: Other Defects of the Present Confederation
FED22: The Same Subject Continued (Other Defects of the Present Confederation)
FED23: The Necessity of a Government as Energetic as the One Proposed to the Preservation of the Union
AFED22: Articles Of Confederation Simply Requires Amendments, Particularly For Commercial Power And Judicial Power; Constitution Goes Too Far
AFED23: Certain Powers Necessary For The Common Defense, Can And Should Be Limited
Common Defense, Milita, and Standing Armies
AFED27: The Use Of Coercion By The New Government (Part II)AFED29: Objections To National Control Of The Militia
FED24: The Powers Necessary to the Common Defense Further Considered
FED25: The Same Subject Continued (The Powers Necessary to the Common Defense Further Considered)
FED26: The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered
FED27: The Same Subject Continued (The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered)
FED28: The Same Subject Continued (The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered)
FED29: Concerning the Militia
AFED28: The Use Of Coercion By The New Government (Part III)
AFED24: Objections To A Standing Army (Part I)
AFED25: Objections To A Standing Army (Part II)
AFED26: The Use Of Coercion By The New Government (Part I)
Taxation
AFED36: Representation And Internal Taxation
AFED30-31: A Virginia Anti-federalist On The Issue Of Taxation
AFED32: Federal Taxation And The Doctrine Of Implied Powers (Part I)
AFED33: Federal Taxation And The Doctrine Of Implied Powers (Part II)
FED30: Concerning the General Power of Taxation
FED31: The Same Subject Continued (Concerning the General Power of Taxation)
FED32: The Same Subject Continued (Concerning the General Power of Taxation)
FED33: The Same Subject Continued (Concerning the General Power of Taxation)
FED34: The Same Subject Continued (Concerning the General Power of Taxation)
FED35: The Same Subject Continued (Concerning the General Power of Taxation)
FED36: The Same Subject Continued (Concerning the General Power of Taxation)
AFED35: Federal Taxing Power Must Be Restrained
AFED34: The Problem Of Concurrent Taxation
The Convention Overstepped its Bounds
AFED37: Factions And The Constitution
AFED38: Some Reactions To Federalist Arguments
FED37: Concerning the Difficulties of the Convention in Devising a Proper Form of Government
FED38: The Same Subject Continued, and the Incoherence of the Objections to the New Plan Exposed
FED39: The Conformity of the Plan to Republican Principles
FED40: On the Powers of the Convention to Form a Mixed Government Examined and Sustained
AFED40: On The Motivations And Authority Of The Founding Fathers
AFED39: Appearance And Reality-The Form Is Federal; The Effect Is National
Powers of Federal Government
FED41: General View of the Powers Conferred by The Constitution
FED42: The Powers Conferred by the Constitution Further Considered
FED43: The Same Subject Continued (The Powers Conferred by the Constitution Further Considered)
AFED41-43: (Part I) “The Quantity Of Power The Union Must Possess Is One Thing; The Mode Of Exercising The Powers Given Is Quite A Different Consideration”
AFED41-43: (Part II) “The Quantity Of Power The Union Must Possess Is One Thing; The Mode Of Exercising The Powers Given Is Quite A Different Consideration”
Authorities of the States
AFED46: “Where Then Is The Restraint?”
FED44: Restrictions on the Authority of the Several States
FED45: The Alleged Danger From the Powers of the Union to the State Governments
FED46: The Influence of the State and Federal Governments Compared
AFED44: What Congress Can Do; What A State Can Not
AFED45: Powers Of National Government Dangerous To State Governments; New York As An Example
Seperatation of Powers
AFED47: “Balance” Of Departments Not Achieved Under New Constitution
AFED50: On Constitutional Conventions (Part II)
AFED49: On Constitutional Conventions (Part I)
FED47: The Particular Structure of the New Government and the Distribution of Power Among Its Different Parts
FED48: These Departments Should Not Be So Far Separated as to Have No Constitutional Control Over Each Other
FED49: Method of Guarding Against the Encroachments of Any One Department of Government by Appealing to the People Through a Convention.
FED50: Periodical Appeals to the People Considered
FED51: The Structure of the Government Must Furnish the Proper Checks and Balances Between the Different Departments.
AFED51: Do Checks And Balances Really Secure The Rights Of The People?
AFED48: No Separation Of Departments Results In No Responsibility
The House of Representatives.
AFED59: The Danger Of Congressional Control Of Elections.
AFED55: Will The House Of Representatives Be Genuinely Representative? (Part I)
AFED56: Will The House Of Representatives Be Genuinely Representative? (Part II)
AFED57: Will The House Of Representatives Be Genuinely Representative? (Part III)
AFED58: Will The House Of Representatives Be Genuinely Representative? (Part IV)
AFED61: Questions And Comments On The Constitutional Provisions Regarding The Election Of Congressmen
AFED54: Apportionment And Slavery: Northern And Southern Views
FED52: The House of Representatives
FED53: The Same Subject Continued (The House of Representatives)
FED54: The Apportionment of Members Among the States.
FED55: The Total Number of the House of Representatives
FED56: The Same Subject Continued (The Total Number of the House of Representatives)
FED57: The Alleged Tendency of the New Plan to Elevate the Few at the Expense of the Many Considered in Connection with Representation.
FED58: Objection That The Number of Members Will Not Be Augmented as the Progress of Population Demands
FED59: Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members
FED60: The Same Subject Continued (Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members).
FED61: The Same Subject Continued (Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members)
AFED52: On The Guarantee Of Congressional Biennial Elections
AFED53: A Plea For The Right Of Recall
AFED60: Will The Constitution Promote The Interests Of Favorite Classes?
The Senate
AFED64: On The Organization And Powers Of The Senate (Part III)
FED62: The Senate
FED63: The Senate Continued
FED64: The Powers of the Senate
FED65: The Powers of the Senate Continued
FED66: Objections to the Power of the Senate To Set as a Court for Impeachments Further Considered
AFED62: On The Organization And Powers Of The Senate (Part I)
AFED63: On The Organization And Powers Of The Senate (Part II)
AFED65: On The Organization And Powers Of The Senate (Part IV)
AFED66: From North Carolina
The Executive
FED67: The Executive Department
AFED67: Various Fears Concerning The Executive Department
AFED70: The Powers And Dangerous Potentials Of His Elected Majesty
AFED73: Does The Presidential Veto Power Infringe On The Separation Of Departments?
AFED76-77: An Antifederalist View Of The Appointing Power Under The Constitution
AFED69: The Character Of The Executive Office
AFED75: A Note Protesting The Treaty-Making Provisions Of The Constitution
AFED72: On The Electoral College; On Re-eligibility Of The President
FED68: The Mode of Electing the President
AFED71: The Presidential Term Of Office
FED69: The Real Character of the Executive
FED70: The Executive Department Further Considered
FED71: The Duration in Office of the Executive
FED72: The Same Subject Continued, and Re-Eligibility of the Executive Considered
FED73: The Provision For The Support of the Executive, and the Veto Power
FED74: The Command of the Military and Naval Forces, and the Pardoning Power of the Executive
FED75: The Treaty-Making Power of the Executive
FED76: The Appointing Power of the Executive
FED77: The Appointing Power Continued and Other Powers of the Executive Considered
AFED74: The President As Military King
AFED68: On The Mode Of Electing The President
The Judiciary
AFED80: The Power Of The Judiciary (Part II)
AFED83: The Federal Judiciary And The Issue Of Trial By Jury
AFED81: The Power Of The Judiciary (Part III)
AFED78-79: The Power Of The Judiciary (Part I)
AFED82: The Power Of The Judiciary (Part IV)
FED78: The Judiciary Department
FED79: The Judiciary Continued
FED80: The Powers of the Judiciary
FED81: The Judiciary Continued, and the Distribution of the Judicial Authority
FED82: The Judiciary Continued
FED83: The Judiciary Continued in Relation to Trial by Jury
Concluding Remarks
AFED84: On The Lack Of A Bill Of Rights
AFED85: Concluding Remarks: Evils Under Confederation Exaggerated; Constitution Must Be Drastically Revised Before Adoption
FED84: Certain General and Miscellaneous Objections to the Constitution Considered and Answered
FED85: Concluding Remarks
Final Draft of the Constitution
House Proposal for a Bill Of Rights
Senate Proposal for a Bill Of Rights
Bill Of Rights Final Version

Videos

Articles of Confederation
Proposed Plans for the Constitution
The Virginia Plan for the Constitution
The New Jersey Plan for the Constitution
Hamilton’s Plan for the Constitution
First Draft of the Constitution
General Topics
FED1: General Introduction
AFED5: Scotland And England – A Case In Point.
FED2: Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence
FED3: The Same Subject Continued (Concerning Dangers From Foreign Force and Influence)
FED4: The Same Subject Continued (Concerning Dangers From Foreign Force and Influence)
FED5: The Same Subject Continued (Concerning Dangers From Foreign Force and Influence)
AFED1: General Introduction: A dangerous plan of benefit only to the “Aristocratick Combination”
AFED3: New Constitution Creates A National Government; Will Not Abate Foreign Influence; Dangers Of Civil War And Despotism
AFED4: Foreign Wars, Civil Wars, And Indian Wars – Three Bugbears
AFED2: “We have been told of phantoms”
Conflicts Between the States
AFED9: A Consolidated Government Is A Tyranny
FED6: Concerning Dangers from Dissensions Between the States
FED7: The Same Subject Continued (Concerning Dangers from Dissensions Between the States)
FED8: The Consequences of Hostilities Between the States
FED9: The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection
FED10: The Same Subject Continued (The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection)
AFED6: The Hobgoblins Of Anarchy And Dissensions Among The States
AFED7: Adoption Of The Constitution Will Lead To Civil War
AFED8: “The Power Vested In Congress Of Sending Troops For Suppressing Insurrections Will Always Enable Them To Stifle The First Struggles Of Freedom”
AFED10: On The Preservation Of Parties, Public Liberty Depends
Costs of the New Government
AFED13: The Expense Of The New Government
FED11: The Utility of the Union in Respect to Commercial Relations and a Navy
FED12: The Utility of the Union In Respect to Revenue
FED13: Advantage of the Union in Respect to Economy in Government
AFED12: How Will The New Government Raise Money?
AFED11: Unrestricted Power Over Commerce Should Not Be Given The National Government
State Sovereignty – preservation of the Union
AFED17: Federalist Power Will Ultimately Subvert State Authority
AFED14: Extent Of Territory Under Consolidated Government Too Large To Preserve Liberty Or Protect Property
AFED18-20: What Does History Teach? (Part I)
FED14: Objections to the Proposed Constitution From Extent of Territory Answered
FED15: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union
FED16: The Same Subject Continued (The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union)
FED17: The Same Subject Continued (The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union)
AFED15: Rhode Island Is Right!
FED18: The Same Subject Continued (The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union)
FED19: The Same Subject Continued (The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union)
FED20: The Same Subject Continued (The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union)
AFED16: Europeans Admire And Federalists Decry The Present System
AFED18-20: What Does History Teach? (Part II)
Defects in the Articles of Confederation
AFED21: Why The Articles Failed
FED21: Other Defects of the Present Confederation
FED22: The Same Subject Continued (Other Defects of the Present Confederation)
FED23: The Necessity of a Government as Energetic as the One Proposed to the Preservation of the Union
AFED22: Articles Of Confederation Simply Requires Amendments, Particularly For Commercial Power And Judicial Power; Constitution Goes Too Far
AFED23: Certain Powers Necessary For The Common Defense, Can And Should Be Limited
Common Defense, Milita, and Standing Armies
AFED27: The Use Of Coercion By The New Government (Part II)
AFED29: Objections To National Control Of The Militia
FED24: The Powers Necessary to the Common Defense Further Considered
FED25: The Same Subject Continued (The Powers Necessary to the Common Defense Further Considered)
FED26: The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered
FED27: The Same Subject Continued (The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered)
FED28: The Same Subject Continued (The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered)
FED29: Concerning the Militia
AFED28: The Use Of Coercion By The New Government (Part III)
AFED24: Objections To A Standing Army (Part I)
AFED25: Objections To A Standing Army (Part II)
AFED26: The Use Of Coercion By The New Government (Part I)
Taxation
AFED36: Representation And Internal Taxation
AFED30-31: A Virginia Anti-federalist On The Issue Of Taxation
AFED32: Federal Taxation And The Doctrine Of Implied Powers (Part I)
AFED33: Federal Taxation And The Doctrine Of Implied Powers (Part II)
FED30: Concerning the General Power of Taxation
FED31: The Same Subject Continued (Concerning the General Power of Taxation)
FED32: The Same Subject Continued (Concerning the General Power of Taxation)
FED33: The Same Subject Continued (Concerning the General Power of Taxation)
FED34: The Same Subject Continued (Concerning the General Power of Taxation)
FED35: The Same Subject Continued (Concerning the General Power of Taxation)
FED36: The Same Subject Continued (Concerning the General Power of Taxation)
AFED35: Federal Taxing Power Must Be Restrained
AFED34: The Problem Of Concurrent Taxation
The Convention Overstepped its Bounds
AFED37: Factions And The Constitution
AFED38: Some Reactions To Federalist Arguments
FED37: Concerning the Difficulties of the Convention in Devising a Proper Form of Government
FED38: The Same Subject Continued, and the Incoherence of the Objections to the New Plan Exposed
FED39: The Conformity of the Plan to Republican Principles
FED40: On the Powers of the Convention to Form a Mixed Government Examined and Sustained
AFED40: On The Motivations And Authority Of The Founding Fathers
AFED39: Appearance And Reality-The Form Is Federal; The Effect Is National
Powers of Federal Government
FED41: General View of the Powers Conferred by The Constitution
FED42: The Powers Conferred by the Constitution Further Considered
FED43: The Same Subject Continued (The Powers Conferred by the Constitution Further Considered)
AFED41-43: (Part I) “The Quantity Of Power The Union Must Possess Is One Thing; The Mode Of Exercising The Powers Given Is Quite A Different Consideration”
AFED41-43: (Part II) “The Quantity Of Power The Union Must Possess Is One Thing; The Mode Of Exercising The Powers Given Is Quite A Different Consideration”
Authorities of the States
AFED46: “Where Then Is The Restraint?”
FED44: Restrictions on the Authority of the Several States
FED45: The Alleged Danger From the Powers of the Union to the State Governments
FED46: The Influence of the State and Federal Governments Compared
AFED44: What Congress Can Do; What A State Can Not
AFED45: Powers Of National Government Dangerous To State Governments; New York As An Example
Seperatation of Powers
AFED47: “Balance” Of Departments Not Achieved Under New Constitution
AFED50: On Constitutional Conventions (Part II)
AFED49: On Constitutional Conventions (Part I)
FED47: The Particular Structure of the New Government and the Distribution of Power Among Its Different Parts
FED48: These Departments Should Not Be So Far Separated as to Have No Constitutional Control Over Each Other
FED49: Method of Guarding Against the Encroachments of Any One Department of Government by Appealing to the People Through a Convention.
FED50: Periodical Appeals to the People Considered
FED51: The Structure of the Government Must Furnish the Proper Checks and Balances Between the Different Departments.
AFED51: Do Checks And Balances Really Secure The Rights Of The People?
AFED48: No Separation Of Departments Results In No Responsibility
The House of Representatives.
AFED59: The Danger Of Congressional Control Of Elections.
AFED55: Will The House Of Representatives Be Genuinely Representative? (Part I)
AFED56: Will The House Of Representatives Be Genuinely Representative? (Part II)
AFED57: Will The House Of Representatives Be Genuinely Representative? (Part III)
AFED58: Will The House Of Representatives Be Genuinely Representative? (Part IV)
AFED61: Questions And Comments On The Constitutional Provisions Regarding The Election Of Congressmen
AFED54: Apportionment And Slavery: Northern And Southern Views
FED52: The House of Representatives
FED53: The Same Subject Continued (The House of Representatives)
FED54: The Apportionment of Members Among the States.
FED55: The Total Number of the House of Representatives
FED56: The Same Subject Continued (The Total Number of the House of Representatives)
FED57: The Alleged Tendency of the New Plan to Elevate the Few at the Expense of the Many Considered in Connection with Representation.
FED58: Objection That The Number of Members Will Not Be Augmented as the Progress of Population Demands
FED59: Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members
FED60: The Same Subject Continued (Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members).
FED61: The Same Subject Continued (Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members)
AFED52: On The Guarantee Of Congressional Biennial Elections
AFED53: A Plea For The Right Of Recall
AFED60: Will The Constitution Promote The Interests Of Favorite Classes?
The Senate
AFED64: On The Organization And Powers Of The Senate (Part III)
FED62: The Senate
FED63: The Senate Continued
FED64: The Powers of the Senate
FED65: The Powers of the Senate Continued
FED66: Objections to the Power of the Senate To Set as a Court for Impeachments Further Considered
AFED62: On The Organization And Powers Of The Senate (Part I)
AFED63: On The Organization And Powers Of The Senate (Part II)
AFED65: On The Organization And Powers Of The Senate (Part IV)
AFED66: From North Carolina
The Executive
FED67: The Executive Department
AFED67: Various Fears Concerning The Executive Department
AFED70: The Powers And Dangerous Potentials Of His Elected Majesty
AFED73: Does The Presidential Veto Power Infringe On The Separation Of Departments?
AFED76-77: An Antifederalist View Of The Appointing Power Under The Constitution
AFED69: The Character Of The Executive Office
AFED75: A Note Protesting The Treaty-Making Provisions Of The Constitution
AFED72: On The Electoral College; On Re-eligibility Of The President
FED68: The Mode of Electing the President
AFED71: The Presidential Term Of Office
FED69: The Real Character of the Executive
FED70: The Executive Department Further Considered
FED71: The Duration in Office of the Executive
FED72: The Same Subject Continued, and Re-Eligibility of the Executive Considered
FED73: The Provision For The Support of the Executive, and the Veto Power
FED74: The Command of the Military and Naval Forces, and the Pardoning Power of the Executive
FED75: The Treaty-Making Power of the Executive
FED76: The Appointing Power of the Executive
FED77: The Appointing Power Continued and Other Powers of the Executive Considered
AFED74: The President As Military King
AFED68: On The Mode Of Electing The President
The Judiciary
AFED80: The Power Of The Judiciary (Part II)
AFED83: The Federal Judiciary And The Issue Of Trial By Jury
AFED81: The Power Of The Judiciary (Part III)
AFED78-79: The Power Of The Judiciary (Part I)
AFED82: The Power Of The Judiciary (Part IV)
FED78: The Judiciary Department
FED79: The Judiciary Continued
FED80: The Powers of the Judiciary
FED81: The Judiciary Continued, and the Distribution of the Judicial Authority
FED82: The Judiciary Continued
FED83: The Judiciary Continued in Relation to Trial by Jury
Concluding Remarks
AFED84: On The Lack Of A Bill Of Rights
AFED85: Concluding Remarks: Evils Under Confederation Exaggerated; Constitution Must Be Drastically Revised Before Adoption
FED84: Certain General and Miscellaneous Objections to the Constitution Considered and Answered
FED85: Concluding Remarks
Final Draft of the Constitution
House Proposal for a Bill Of Rights
Senate Proposal for a Bill Of Rights
Bill Of Rights Final Version